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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 67 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 文超順(2006)。台灣地區縣市國民中小學超額教師介聘之研究。學校行政雙月刊,45,237-246。
    2. 文超順(2007)。國民小學超額教師人力資源運用方案之研究。國立政治大學教育研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北市。台中市政府主計處(2006)。臺閩地區各縣市人口移入概況 。2008 年10月7日,取自:統計通報(第095-023
    3. 號).doc 台中市政府主計處(2008)。臺中市97~102
    4. 李朝卿(2008)。南投縣國民小學學校行銷策略之研究。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所碩士論文,未出版,台中市。李麗日、郭宏德、姜明雄、連建傑、陳佳雯、莊惠卿(2008)。超額制度對於國民小學超額教師影響之研究---以台中縣市為例。社會科教學研究,13,125-151。吳知賢、段良雄(1999)。台灣地區公私立國中、國小學校選擇模式。國家科學委員會研究彙刊:人文及社會科學,9(2),254-267。
    5. 吳政達(2006)。 少子化趨勢下國民中小學學校經濟規模政策之研究。教育政策論壇,9(1),1-22。
    Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林庭暘(2017)。公立中小學處理超額教師法制之研究及建議─各地方政府超額介聘制度之比較。中原大學財經法律研究所學位論文。2017。1-141。
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