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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 57 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 一、 中文部分王宗吉(1992)。體育運動社會學。台北:銀禾文化事業有限公司。王明如(2007)。大專排球特優級選手之家長式領導、團隊凝聚力與團隊滿意度相關研究。未出版碩士論文,輔仁大學,台北縣。王明月、許吉越、游鳳芸(2007)。優秀桌球選手運動自信心與賽前狀態性焦慮之研究。朝陽學報,12,185-199。
    2. 吳慧卿(2002)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚及滿意度關係之實證研究。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學,台北市。
    3. 呂碧琴(1991)。自信心與運動表現。中華體育,4(4),21-25。
    4. 宋一夫、湯慧娟(2005)。我國大專院游泳教練家長式領導之調查。大專體育學刊,7(3),151-160。
    5. 林清和(2001)。教練心理學。台北市:文史哲。
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