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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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    Reference ( 94 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林佳慧(2002)。國民中學生命價值教學模式之研究。國立臺灣師範大學生物學系在職進修碩士學位班碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
    2. 林安梧(2009)。中國人文詮釋學。臺北市:臺灣學生。林國瑞、李一聖、楊靜芳(2000):臺北市立體育學院國小職前教師教師效能研究。北體學報,8,118-128。
    3. 林惠煌(2002)。臺北縣國民小學校長教學領導與教師教學效能關係之研究。
    4. 徐文星(2008)。臺北市國民中學體育教師知識管理與教學效能之研究。國立臺灣師 範大學體育學系碩士論文,未出版,臺北市。
    5. 孫露華(2004)。國小自然與生活科技領域教師教學信念與教學效能之研究。
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