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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 46 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 林佩郁(2002)。焦點解決取向團體諮商對國小單親兒童輔導效果之研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導與諮商系碩士論文,未出版,彰化縣。周美伶、楊文貴(1990)。團體諮商。台北市:心理。
    2. 邱素梅(2009)。理情行為團體諮商對國小高年級兒童自我概念與生活適應之研究。國立屏東教育大學教育心理與輔導學系碩士論文,未出版,屏東縣。金慶瑞、林惠芬(2003)。國中資源班學生學校生活素質之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學報,18,頁247-278。
    3. 張春興(1995)。張氏心理學辭典。台北市:東華。
    4. 黃德祥(2008)。青少年發展與輔導。台北市:五南。
    5. 廖婉君(2004)。國中學生人格類型與自我概念關係之研究。國立台灣師範大學工業教育學系碩士論文,未出版,台北市。
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