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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 92 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 成露茜,熊秉純(1993)。婦女、外銷導向成長和國家:台灣個案。台灣社會研究季刊,14,39-76。
    2. 吳明蒼(2008)。大學生休閒態度、休閒動機、休閒滿意與休閒行為因果關係模式之研究。教育研究學報,42(2),83-100。
    3. 林永昌(2007)。當前兩種庶民休閒行為對歌仔戲的影響:以南、高兩市為觀察場域。民俗曲藝,155,151-200。
    4. 林育英(2007)。派駐昆山地區台籍人員休閒消費行為之研究。國立中央大學管理學院高階主管企管碩士班碩士論文,未出版,桃園。
    5. 林欣慧(2002)。解說成效對休閒效益體驗之影響研究-以登山健行為例。國立台灣師範大學運動休閒與管理研究所碩士論文,未出版,台北。 林宜蔓(2004)。游泳者持續參與在休閒效益與幸福感之研究。雲林科技大學休閒運動研究所碩士論文,未出版,雲林。
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