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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 27 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 吳瓊(2009) ,台灣地區退休老人生活滿意度影響因素,亞洲大學健康產業管理學系長期照護組,在職專班碩士論文呂寶靜(1999)。增進老人社會參與之政策規劃。
    2. 陳榮華(2006),海德格存有與時間闡釋,台北市,台大出版中心,p.132-p.136
    3. 郭麗安(1982),老人心理適應之調查研究。國立台灣師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文,未出版,臺北。
    4. 楊國賜(1978),社會及行為科學研究法。臺北:東華書局。
    5. 廖博元(2010),銀髮族休閒參與動機與滿意度之研究,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系碩士論文蔡培村(1993),運用退休教師人力推展成人教育可行性之研究,教育研究資訊,1:6,P28-44。
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