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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 305 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 卯靜儒(2012)。尋找最大公約數?一高中歷史教科書編寫與審查互動過程分析。當代教育研究,20,83-122。
  2. 朱美珍(2011)。課程審議的理想與實際:臺灣中學社會類科教科書審定歷程之研究(未出版之博士論文)。國立台灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系研究所,台北市。
  3. 吳心怡(2003)。國小教師教科書使用情形之個案研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台北教育大學課程與教學研究所,臺北市。
  4. 吳清明(2013)。關注導向採擇模式應用在桃園縣推動一綱多本教科書選用政策之研究(未出版之博士論文)。國立台北教育大學教育學院教育經營與管理學系,台北市。
  5. 吳煥烘、陳雅芳(2008)。國小教科書選用問題與解決之策略。教師之友,49(3), 66-73。
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