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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 137 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王筱雯 (2012)。使用資料驅動學習於國小英文文法教學之成效。國立臺北教育大學,臺北市。
  2. 石素錦 (1999)。從認知心理與社會互動談兒童語言發展--從皮亞傑與維高斯基理論談兒童英語學習。課程與教學季刊。2(3),1-22。
  3. 吳美慧 (2002)。探討遊戲文法教學對小六學童學習英語過去式文法之成效。國立臺北教育大學,臺北市。
  4. 吳淑蘭 (2013)。雲端教學服務平台導入國中英語合作學習對學生學習態度與學習成就之研究。國立台北科技大學,未出版,臺北市。
  5. 吳莉欽 (2002)。電腦網路學習環境的理念與問題。教育資料與圖書館學,39(4),441-455。
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