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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 91 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳美華(1996)。國民小學創校初期學校組織特性與校長領導型式之相關研究。國立臺北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文,台北市。
  2. 吳勁甫(2003)。「校長領導」與「學校效能」關係之探討-研究結果的回顧。學校行政,27,52-62。
  3. 林清山(1999)。心理與教育統計學。台北市:東華。
  4. 林逸青(2003)。國中校長權力運作策略、衝突管理策略與學校效能之關係:微觀政治分析,國立臺北師範學院國民教育研究所博士論文,台北市。
  5. 春山茂雄(1995/1996)。The great revolution in the brain world。
Times Cited (55) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王真真(2014)。新北市立完全中學校長正向領導與學校組織文化關係之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-197。 
  2. 何仁馨(2014)。新北市公立幼兒園主任正向領導與學校效能關係之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-171。 
  3. 劉晏伯(2014)。應用正向心理學思維於正向管教之研究-以一名國中教師的管教經驗為例。中興大學教師專業發展研究所學位論文。2014。1-108。 
  4. 湯發安(2008)。桃園縣國民小學校長服務領導與學校效能關係之研究。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2008。1-197。 
  5. 陳彥學(2011)。高中職教師知覺科技領導、組織氣氛對學校效能關係之研究—以臺北市和臺東縣為例。臺東大學教育學系學位論文。2011。1-181。 
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