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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 64 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王肇蘭、許義忠與徐偉初 (2008),「台灣地區地方政府效率暨生產力之評估」,《應用經濟論叢》,84 期:71-120。
  2. 王肇蘭、許義忠與賴如庭(2014),「臺灣地區地方稅捐稽徵機關稽徵效率暨生產力之分析」,《會計審計論叢》,4(1):99-136。
  3. 高強、黃旭男與 Toshiyuki Sueyoshi (2003),管理績效評估-資料包絡分析法。臺北:華泰出版社
  4. 許義忠與陳煊羚(2011),「臺灣地區國稅之租稅稽徵機關效率分析」,《評價學報》, 4:51-91。
  5. 黃台心、姜麗智、陳冠臻與邱柏豪(2010),「應用共同邊界成本函數探討西歐十六國銀行業技術效率和技術缺口比率」,《管理評論》,29 卷3 期:25-43。
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