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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 16 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Fabozzi, F. J., and Francis J. C. (1977), Stability Tests for Alphas and Betas over Bull and Bear Market Conditions, Journal of Finance, 32, 1093-1099.
  2. Fabozzi, F. J., and Francis J. C. (1979), Mutual Fund Systematic Risk for Bull and Bear Markets: An empirical examination, Journal of Finance, 34, 1243-1250.
  3. Kahnemann D. and Tversky A. (1979), Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk, Econometrica 47, 263-291.
  4. Lee, Jen-Sin, Chin-Tai Kuo, and Pi-Hsia Yen (2011), Market States and Initial Returns: Evidence from Taiwanese IPOs. 7-9
  5. Pagan, A.R. and K.A. Sossounov (2003), A Simple Framework for Analyzing Bull and Bear Markets, Journal of Applied Econometrics18, No.1 (January–February): 23–46.0
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳錕榮(2006)。保險公司資本增資之個案研究-以A公司為例。淡江大學保險學系保險經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2006。1-51。 
  2. 簡妙娟(2006)。資產價值減損對我國股票市場之影響:以財務會計準則公報第35號為例。淡江大學財務金融學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2006。1-71。 
  3. 禚建斌(2004)。會計折舊及資本支出與企業價值之攸關性實證研究。臺灣大學會計學研究所學位論文。2004。1-75。 
  4. 黃婷鈺(2006)。從證交法第二十條之一論發行人及其負責人、會計人員及會計師之民事責任。政治大學法律學系碩士班學士後法學組學位論文。2006。1-193。
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