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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 151 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 李明濱、戴傳文、廖士程、江弘基(2006).自殺防治策略推動現況與展望.護理雜誌,53(6),5-13。
  2. 杜明勳(2003).談靈性.護理雜誌,50(1),81-84。
  3. 李彩鳳、吳麗芬、蘇惠貞(2013).以靈性懷舊探討老人生命意義的經驗.台灣高齡服務管理學刊,2(1),83-112。
  4. 周騰達、蕭添木、黃洽鑽、劉宏文(1991).家庭關懷指數的初步研究.高雄醫誌,7,27-31。
  5. 吳淑芬、井慶芸、李燕、董弘一、阮建維、趙東波(2015).不同時期結直腸癌病人症狀困擾、憂鬱與生活品質關係之探討.護理雜誌,62(6),68-80。
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