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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 102 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明月(2010)。桌球教練領導行為與組織氣氛、團隊凝聚力、運動滿意度之結構模式。大專體育學刊,12(3),53-64。
  2. 王雅民(2011)。服務品質,運動設施環境與滿意度對觀眾忠誠度之影響—以2010 海碩國際女子網球公開賽為例。未出版碩士論文,臺灣師範大學,台北市。
  3. 吳亮頤(2009)。運動賽會觀賞者觀光意象及滿意度之相關研究-以2009世界運動會為例。未出版碩士論文,臺灣師範大學,台北市。
  4. 吳建明(2008)。非營利組織志工參與動機與組織承諾之研究-以臺東縣救國團所屬社會基層團務組織志工為例。臺東大學。
  5. 吳慧卿(2014)。運動志工之參與動機及組織承諾。臺灣體育運動管理學報,14(1),89-114。
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