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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 39 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 1. 孔維新、傅祖壇 (2008),以學生為本位之大學商學院之表現評估-保證區域資料包絡分析法之應用,經濟論文叢刊,483-514。
  2. 6. 康龍魁、李文清 (2009),台灣地區科技大學經營效率之研究-資料包絡法及Malmquist生產力指數之應用,技術及職業教育學報 第三卷第二期,73-105。
  3. 8. 許義忠、林冰如、詹仁智、何姍嬬 (2010),台灣中部地區大專院校經營效率之分析,國立臺中技術學院學報,14,25-42。
  4. 17. 盧永祥、傅祖壇 (2007),產出品質、組織特性與台灣高等技職院校之經營效率,管理評論,26,1- 21。
  5. 1. Banker, R. D., Charnes, A., Cooper, W. W., & Schinnar, A. P. (1981). A Bi-Extremal Principle for Frontier Estimation and Efficiency Evaluations. Management Science, 27(12), 1370-1382.
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳姍蔚(2015)。臺灣高級職業學校之經營績效分析比較。朝陽科技大學財務金融系學位論文。2015。1-64。
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