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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 101 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁雪茵、鄭伯燻、任金剛(1996)。質性研究中研究者的角色。本土心理學研究,6,354-376。
  2. 方金祥(2009)。幼兒創意安全科學玩具之設計與在科學遊戲創意教學上之應用研究-「潛水夫與蟬鳴器」為例。台南人文社會學報,1,55-74。
  3. 方金祥、劉奕萱(2007)。創意童玩設計及在幼兒科學遊戲創意教學上之應用研究。幼兒保育學刊,5,75-86。
  4. 余淑君(2001)。以動態評量探究國小五年級學童酸鹼概念的概念改變機制。國立台北師範學研究所論文,未出版,台北。
  5. 卓麗容(2010)。國小自然與生活科技學習手冊。台北:康軒。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉麗娟(2014)。配對協同學習融入國小高年級自然科教學之行動研究。淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-211。 
  2. 謝月如(2017)。實施科學遊戲於幼兒園主題課程之行動研究。淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士班學位論文。2017。1-90。
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