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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 151 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂沛玲,議題中心教學模式對國小學生能源環境行為影響之研究—以國小四年級學童為例,碩士論文,國立臺北教育大學社會與區域發展學系,臺北市(2012)。
  2. 李弘善(譯),思考教學(Robert J. Sternberg and Louise Spear– Swerling, Teaching for Thinking, 1996),遠流出版社,臺北市(2004)。
  3. 汪為健,以KEEP教材中之能源教育概念為基礎分析國小康軒版南一版教材能源教育內容之研究,碩士論文,國立臺北教育大學自然科學教育學系碩士,臺北市(2011)。
  4. 吳耀明,問題本位學習在小自然科之應用研究,新竹教育大學學報,第二十一期,第35-73頁(2005)。
  5. 吳耀明,國小五年級社會領域實施問題本位學習的歷程與成效之研究,博士論文,國立嘉義大學國民教育研究所,嘉義縣(2008)。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 洪禎瞰(2017)。「問題本位學習」融入班級科展活動對國小五年級學童的自我導向學習之個案研究-以桃園市某國小為例。中原大學教育研究所學位論文。2017。1-108。
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