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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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  1. 王明鴻(2007)。以部落格文章探討高雄市目的地意象之研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立高雄餐旅學院,高雄市。
  2. 王韻(2008)。以P-O-X 平衡理論衡量年輕人對代言人特質、廣告態度與服飾屬性間的關係-以服飾品牌為例。高雄師大學報,25,29-50。
  3. 江啟先、耿慶瑞、鄭弘毅(2014)。 探討虛擬代言人、自我指涉訊息、與產品連結對消費者態度之影響—平衡理論觀點。管理與系統,21(4),667-687。
  4. 何亞竹(2012)。大學國際志工服務隊團隊發展之研究-以北區三個教育服務國際志工服務隊為例。臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系學位論文,1-289。
  5. 帥韻儀(2003)。以問題解決為導向之衝突問題解決模式建立之研究(未出版碩士論文)。中原大學,桃園市。
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