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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 46 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 7. 行政院勞工委會職業訓練局(2015)。勞動力發展辭典(微型企業)。網址:
  2. 10. 余芝婷(2011)。微型餐飲創業管理之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立高雄餐旅大學餐旅管理研究所,高雄市。
  3. 12. 林俊延(2005)。外來飲食文化的在地性格與異國想像:台北市義大利麵之飲食社會學考察(1999-2005)。未出版碩士論文,台灣大學社會學研究所,台北市。
  4. 14. 施志宣(1995)。餐飲業經營管理成功因素之研究-以西式速食業為實證。第一屆食飲管理學術研討會論文集,台北市。
  5. 16. 陳淑惠(2008)。微型企業行銷模式運作之個案研究-以女性美容服務業為例。未出版碩士論文,國立中興大學,台中市。
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