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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 17 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林灼榮、劉浩然 (2009),國際原油對國內車用汽油價格之不對稱衝擊效果評估,農業與資源經濟、台灣農業與經濟學會,6:2,頁71-101。
  2. 馬泰成、簡美瑟 (2011),汽油價格果真「易漲難跌」嗎?,社會科學論叢,第五卷第二期,頁60。
  3. 黃琝琇、林建甫 (2011),國際原油價格衝擊對台灣石油消費量的不對稱效果,應用經濟論叢,第九十期,頁55。
  4. Bacon, R W.,(1991), Rockets and Feathers: the Asymmetric Speed of Adjustment of UK Retail Gasoline Prices to Cost Changes, Energy Economics, 13(3): 211-218.
  5. Borenstein, S., A. C. Cameron, and R. Gilbert, (1997), Do Gasoline Prices Respond Asymmetrically to Crude Oil Price Changes?, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(1): 305-339.
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