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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 96 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王兆慶(2003)。台灣健美運動的社會學研究。未出版之碩士論文,台北,國立臺灣大學社會學研究所。
  2. 邱建章(2003)。休閒健身與生活風格之文化研究。未出版之碩士論文,台北,國立台灣師範大學體育研究所。
  3. 邱偉志、畢璐鑾(2005)。台灣健身俱樂部之契機與未來。大專體育學刊,101-108頁。
  4. 林祐陞 (2012)。羽球館消費者團體氣氛、知覺價值與運動承諾之探討。台中,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理研究所。
  5. 林聰哲(2008)。中部地區高爾夫球場服務品質、消費者知覺價值、滿意度與行為意向之研究。管理實務與理論研究,196-214頁。
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