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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 121 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 沈進成、趙家民、張義立、曾慈慧(2007)。志工認真性休閒涉入、阻礙、效益與承諾影響關係之研究-以福智教育園區為例。運動與遊憩研究,2(1),19-43頁
  2. 林佳蓉(2002)。台灣地區老人休閒參與和休閒阻礙之研究,國立體育學院論叢,12(2),59-76。
  3. 林季燕、季力康(2003)。運動動機量表之編製-信度與效度分析。台灣運動心理學報,2,15-23頁。
  4. 季力康、賴素鈴、陳美燕(1995)。大專網球選手運動目標取向與運動動機之相關研究。中華民國體育學會體育學報,20,1-12頁。
  5. 季力康(1997)。在體育活動中兒童能力和努力概念發展的研究。體育學報,22,83-93頁。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉國良(2014)。社區運動性社團參與動機對團體氣氛與運動承諾影響之研究-以 台中市海線地區為例。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2014。1-98。
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