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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 191 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 孔令人(2008)。發展遲緩兒童家長壓力與休閒參與及其效益之探討。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學運動與休閒管理研究所,台北。
  2. 王秀玲(2010)。國小高年級學童人格特質、休閒態度與休閒參與之研究-以台東縣為例。未出版碩士論文,國立臺東大學身心整合與運動休閒管理學系,台東。
  3. 王秀敏(2011)。台灣北區私立技職大學學生人格特質、社團參與與人際關係之相關研究。未出版碩士論文,國立臺灣師範大學公民教育與活動領導學系在職進修碩士班,台北。
  4. 王姿雅(2014)。教師人格特質、生涯自我效能與工作滿意度之相關研究。未出版碩士論文,國立成功大學教育研究所,台南。
  5. 白宗易、陳克舟、陳明宏(2014)。休閒動機、涉入程度與休閒效益之關係。中原體育學報 5期 ( 2014/12) , 51-63
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