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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 36 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁虹(1987),企業文化組織承諾之研究,國立政治大學研究所博士論文,台北。
  2. 尹衍樑(1988),組織變革策略對組織承諾之影響研究一以潤泰工業股份有限公司電腦化為例,國立政治大學企業管理研究所博士論文,台北。
  3. 黃國隆(1996),「台灣與大陸企業員工工作價值觀之比較」,兩岸三地人力資源管理比較與整合學術研討會論文集。
  4. 陳增朋(民90),大學院校體育主管領導型態、體育教師內外控取向與體育教師組織承諾關係之研究,國立台灣師範大學運動休閒管理研究所碩士論文。
  5. 潘依琳與張媚,1998,「醫院護理人員之工作特性成就動機對工作投入工作滿足與留職意願之影響」, 中華公共衛生雜誌, 第17 卷,第1 期, 頁48 - 5 8 。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 劉曼瑛(2007)。台灣金融產業電話行銷關鍵成功因素之探討。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2007。1-73。 
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