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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 107 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 于宗先、王金利著,台灣中小企業的成長,2000年12月,初版,台北市,聯經出版公司。
  2. Acs, Z. J. and D. B. Audretsch (eds), Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 2003.
  3. Aldrich, H. “Using an ecological perspective to study organizational founding rates.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 14(3). (1990): 7-24.
  4. Arenius, P. and A Kovalainen. “Similarities and Differences Across the Factors Associated with Women’s Self-employment Preferences in the Nordic Countries.” Intenational Small Business Journal, Vol., 24(1). (2006): 31–59.
  5. Armington, C. and Z. J. Acs. “The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation”, Regional Studies, Vol., 36. (2002): 33-45.
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 呂玉琪(2012)。以心智模式探究創業家之創業精神。臺北科技大學技術及職業教育研究所學位論文。2012。1-429。 
  2. 黃軍浩(2009)。創業家精神衡量與實證之研究-數據學派觀點。長榮大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2009。1-99。 
  3. 陳重秀(2008)。瀝青混凝土拌和廠提昇經營管理策略之研究。中央大學土木工程學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2008。1-157。
  4. 郭子寧(2013)。青年創業貸款政策執行與成效評估: 以成功申貸者為對象。臺灣大學國家發展研究所學位論文。2013。1-101。
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