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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 68 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 2.林淑姬(1992),薪酬公平、程式公平與組織承諾、組織公民行為關係之研究,國立政治大學企業管理研究所,未出版博士論文。
  2. 5.施妤璇(2006),轉換型領導、交易型領導對工作績效與離職傾向之研究-以組織承諾為中介變項,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所,未出版碩士論文。
  3. 1. Bass, B. M. Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations, New York: Free Press, (1985).
  4. 3. Beatty, R. W., C. E. Schneier, and J. R. Beatty.“ An Empirical Investigation of Perceptions of Ratee Behaviour Frequency and Ratee Behaviour Change Using behavioural Expectation Scales (BES). ” Personnel Psychology, 30(1977): 647-658.
  5. 6. Buchanan, B. “Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialization of Manager in Work Organizations. ” Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(1974): 533-546.
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳琮文(2015)。消防機關領導風格對組織承諾影響之研究─以領導成員交換關係(LMX)為中介變項。長榮大學高階管理碩士在職專班(EMBA)學位論文。2015。1-89。 
  2. 馬有德(2010)。自我效能、主管部屬交換關係對網徵人員離職傾向之影響。朝陽科技大學保險金融管理系學位論文。2010。1-65。
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