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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 24 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. [1] 田瑞祥,「以XBRL為基礎的財務報表分析專家系統」,台灣大學電機工程學研究所,2004年。
  2. [5] 周濟群,「XBRL 標準應用於財務報告之發展現況(上)」,會計研究月刊,第220 期:75-86,2002年。
  3. [6] 周濟群,「XBRL 標準應用於財務報告之發展現況(下)」,會計研究月刊,第221 期:96-108,2002年。
  4. [8] 陳嶢睜 ,「應用Web Services與XBRL於企業財務報告資訊之系統模型研究」,中原會計系碩士論文,2001年。
  5. [9] 張育彰 ,「應用基因演算法於台鐵列車駕駛員排班與輪班整合問題之研究」,成功大學交通管理研究所碩士論文,2001年。
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