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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 102 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 刁怡仍(2012)。高雄市國民中學健康與體育學習領域教師休閒運動參與現況與阻礙因素之研究(未出版碩士論文)。樹德科技大學,高雄市。
  2. 芳彥博(2010)。金門縣教師休閒活動參與及休閒阻礙之研究,觀光旅遊研究學刊,5(1),77-94。
  3. 吳筱雯(2005)。桃園縣國中已婚女性教師生活壓力與休閒參與、休閒滿意及幸福感之相關研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立體育學院,桃園縣。
  4. 李明宗(1994)。戶外遊憩名詞釋義,休閒、觀光、遊憩論文集。台北市:地景。
  5. 李炳昭、陳秋(2009)。論述休閒、休閒活動與休閒運動。體育學系學刊,4,48-57。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 曾翊涵(2015)。高雄市公私立國民中學教師休閒現況與休閒阻礙之研究。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2015。1-106。 
  2. 陳妍潓(2016)。高雄市國中教師休閒參與、休閒效益、休閒阻礙對幸福感之影響。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2016。1-184。
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