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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 155 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 莊立民 (2002),「組織創新模式建構與實證之研究–以台灣資訊電子業為例」。國立成功大學企業管理學研究所博士論文,台南。
  2. 陳秀敏 (2011),「金融業顧客關係管理關鍵成功要素研究-探討顧客滿意度及忠誠度」。國立交通大學管理學院經營管理學程碩士論文,新竹。
  3. 趙新銘 (2007),「服務創新、規範性評估、服務品質與顧客滿意度關係之研究-以小客車租賃業為例」。國立成功大學高階管理碩士在職專班碩士論文,台南。
  4. 蕭志同、廖宛瑜、陳建文 (2005),「博物館服務品質、認知價值、滿意度、忠誠度關係之研究─以國立自然科學博物館為例」。博物館季刊,20(2),頁81-96。
  5. Abernathy & Clark (1985). “Innovation : Mapping the Winds of Creative Destruction,” Research Policy.14,pp.3-22
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