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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 96 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 8.洪榮昭、林雅玲、林展立(2003)。創意教學方案綜合分析~國中小創意教師教師教學策略與成效之研究。國立台灣師範大學創意教學實務分享教學設計研習手冊。
  2. 15.李天賞,民95,台灣的社區與組織,揚智文化事業股份有限公司,台北市。
  3. 1.林金定, 2005,質性研究方法:訪談模式與實施步驟分析,身心障礙研究Vol.3, No.2
  4. 6.江依芳,2004,生態旅遊服務品質、滿意度及行為意向關係之研究-以日月潭步道生態之旅為例,朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系碩士論文,台中。
  5. 12.史育禎、張長義、蔡博文,2006,社區林業作為部落自然資源管理之想像-新竹縣尖石鄉司馬庫斯部落個案研究臺大實驗林研究報告研究論文。
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