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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 94 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 林金定(2007)。女性智能障礙者月經問題誰來重視。身心障礙研究,5(3),215-224。
  2. 林燕卿(2002)。同儕性教育計畫效果研究。台北:師大書苑。
  3. 林燕卿、李海莉(2008)。現行中小學一貫體系「健康與體育」領域中
  4. 林寶貴、黃玉枝、張正芬(1992)。台灣區智能不足學童語言障礙之調查研究。聽語會刊,13-14。
  5. 胡雅各(2003)。啟智教養機構性教育教學成效之研究。國立彰化師範大學特殊教育學系博士論文。未出版。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳彥睿(2015)。高齡者、精神障礙者、心智障礙者之園藝治療課程評估。中興大學園藝學系所學位論文。2015。1-181。 
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