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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 69 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 10.何金針、唐璽惠(2006)。少子化趨勢對幼稚園經營之衝擊及因應策略。學校行政雙月刊,43,242-252。
  2. 13.林君懿(2009)。國民小學行銷作為對學校品牌和家長滿意度關係之研究-以台北市某學區為例。國立臺北教育大學教育政策與管理研究所碩士班碩士論文。
  3. 14.邱志聖、謝佳宏、葉相億(2003)。國際購併組合及品牌名稱對消費者態度之影響-以銀行業為例。管理學報,20(6),1123-1158。
  4. 17.柯依均(2008)。電視遊樂器之品牌效應-以台南市為例。台南科技大學商學與管理研究所碩士班碩士論文。
  5. 33.黃秀端(2010)。少子化趨勢下幼兒園經營策略之研究以中部四縣市為例。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所碩士班碩士論文。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 蔡昀晃(2015)。羽球拍使用者品牌聯想、涉入程度與購買意願之研究。樹德科技大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2015。1-84。 
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