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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 306 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Aaker, D. & Keller, K. (1990). Consumer evaluations of brand extensions. Journal of
  2. Aitken, N. (1982). College student performance, satisfaction and retention: specification
  3. Industrial management & Data Systems. Emerald Group Publishing limited. Vol.
  4. Alridge, S. & Rowley, J. (2001). Conducting a withdrawal survey. Quality in Higher
  5. Alves, H. & Raposo, M. (2007). Conceptual Model of Students’ Satisfaction in Higher
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳勸仁(2007)。台灣證券業赴中國大陸投資問題之研究。淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2007。1-140。 
  2. 呂芳榕(2001)。大陸臺商投資租稅規劃及其運用方式之研究。中原大學會計研究所學位論文。2001。1-143。
  3. 邱宏洋(2010)。上海市政府治理模式與台商互動關係之研究 ∼以浦東新區台商為例。臺北大學公共行政暨政策學系學位論文。2010。1-202。
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