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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 95 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明月、許吉越(2003)。大專桌球選手知覺的教練領導行為之研究,中華桌球,78-87。
  2. 王俊文(2013)。大專院校甲組棒球選手知覺教練領導行為與滿意度相關之研究(未出版碩士論文)。高苑科技大學經營管理研究所,高雄市。
  3. 王貞治(2011)。桃園縣國中乙級籃球代表隊教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力關係之研究(未出版碩士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學體育學系在職進修碩士班,臺北市。
  4. 吳慧卿(2001)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力及滿意度關係之實證研究(未出版博士論文)。國立臺灣師範大學體育研究所,臺北市。
  5. 吳慧卿、鄭志富(2003)。選手知覺教練領導行為、團隊衝突、團隊凝聚力與滿意度關係之研究;臺灣體育運動管理學會,2,124-147。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳浩裕(2016)。軟式網球選手知覺教練領導行為與團隊凝聚力之研究-以105年全國中等學校運動會為例。彰化師範大學運動學系運動與健康休閒碩士班學位論文。2016。1-79。
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