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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
    Reference ( 306 ) 〈TOP〉
    1. 內政部戶政司(2008)。內政部人口政策資料匯集。內政部戶政司-人口政策查詢。
    2. 內政部戶政司(2013)。內政部戶政司全球資訊網。取自
    3. 王衍力(2011)。臺北市國民中學特教教師專業承諾之研究。國立臺灣師範大學
    4. 何柔慧(2003)。台北縣國民小學教師教育改革壓力知覺與專業承諾之相關研究。
    5. 余季容 (2002)。國中一般智能優異班教師教學效能之研究。彰化師範大學特殊
    Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
    1. 趙梅華(2016)。領導能力、專業承諾與專案績效之關聯性研究。淡江大學企業管理學系碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-61。
    2. 金家卉(2016)。教保服務人員正向心理資本與專業承諾之相關研究。樹德科技大學兒童與家庭服務系碩士班學位論文。2016。1-98。
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