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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 吳明隆(2005)。統計應用學習實務(2版)。臺北:知城數位科技股份有限公司。
  2. 吳政融(2002)。大學體育教師工作壓力及因應方式之研究。未出版之碩士論文,臺灣師範大學,臺北。
  3. 周玉慧(1998)。晚年生活壓力、社會支持與老人身心健康。人文及社會科學集刊,10(2),227-265。
  4. 林秀卿(2009)。大臺北地區公立中等學校兼任行政教師休閒參與及其影響因素之研究。未出版碩士論文,公民教育與活動領導學系在職進修碩士班,臺北。
  5. 林俊卿(2014)。臺中縣國中教師休閒活動參與現況與態度之研究。未出版碩士論文,臺中健康暨管理學院經營管理研究所,臺中。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王柏翔(2011)。審計工作底稿研究。長榮大學經營管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-84。 
  2. 張淑娟(2017)。公務人員工作壓力與休閒調適策略之研究:以臺中市區公所為例。中興大學國家政策與公共事務研究所學位論文。2017。1-235。
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