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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 253 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 中華民國護理師護士公會全國聯合會(2005)。台灣地區醫院以上護理人力現況。行政院衛生署委託研究計畫成果報告。台北:護理師護士公會全國聯合會。
  2. 尹祚芊、楊克平、劉麗芳(2001)。台灣地區醫院護理人員留任措施計畫成效之評值。護理研究,9(3),247-258。
  3. 王雅玄(1996)。進入情境與歷史:台灣原住民教師的多元文化素養及其實踐。台東大學教育學報,19(1),33-68。
  4. 台灣護理教育評鑑委員會(2008)。護理碩博士班評鑑指標共識會議。日期:2008年1月22日。
  5. 伍麗珠、劉長安(2000)。探討白班護理人員之工作內容及時數分配,榮總護理,17(1),63-71。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 黃湘鈞(2017)。以健康信念模式探討醫學中心新生兒病房護理人員施行早產兒疼痛控制措施之現況及其相關影響因素。臺灣大學護理學研究所學位論文。2017。1-143。 
  2. 駱子文(2013)。醫院護理人力短缺現象之動態效應—以T醫院為個案之系統動力學分析。中正大學企業管理學系學位論文。2013。1-118。
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