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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 148 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王秀紅、黃寶萱(2001)‧老年婦女的疾病預防與健康促進‧護理雜誌,
  2. 江弘基、戴傳文、李明濱、王銘光、張文穎、蔡佩樺(2006)‧老人自殺
  3. 呂實靜(2000)‧老人朋友網絡支持功能之初探‧社會政策與社會工作學刊,
  4. 李玉嬋(2006a)‧醫療諮詢相關的理論基礎-因應終末疾病衝擊與死亡悲
  5. 李玉嬋(2006b)‧醫療諮詢相關的理論基礎-因應終末疾病衝擊與死亡悲
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 鄭至均(2012)。社區高齡者參與懷舊課程對寂寞感及生活滿意度影響之研究。中正大學成人及繼續教育系高齡者教育研究所學位論文。2012。1-152。
  2. 吳家維(2013)。公司實質控制者法制之建構—以影子董事與控制股東責任法制之比較分析為中心。中正大學財經法律學系學位論文。2013。1-196。
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