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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 161 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 申章政(1999)。國小校長管理溝通類型、衝突管理風格與學校效能之關係研究。國立台北師範學院國民教育研究所碩士論文。未出版,台北市。
  2. 吳清山(1998)。學校效能研究。台北市:五南。
  3. 吳明烈主編(2004)。組織學習與學習型學校。台北市:高等教育。
  4. 周裕隆(2008)。新竹縣市國民小學校長轉型領導與學校效能關係之研究。玄奘大學教育人力資源與發展學系碩士班,未出版,新竹市。
  5. 林志成(2010)。臺灣地區特色學校之發展現況及未來展望。學校行政雙月刊,66, 2010/3 1-19。
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 何仁馨(2014)。新北市公立幼兒園主任正向領導與學校效能關係之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2014。1-171。 
  2. 黃若慈(2012)。校園空間特色營造硬體規劃之研究—以新竹縣竹東鎮大同國小為例。中原大學室內設計研究所學位論文。2012。1-131。 
  3. 蔡致遠(2011)。國民小學內部行銷、教師工作滿意度與學校效能之研究。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所學位論文。2011。1-217。 
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