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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 98 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 丁吉文(2001)。國民中小學教師終身學習素養與其專業態度之研究。國立高雄師範大學成人教育研究所,未出版,高雄。
  2. 呂慧玲(2009) 台北市幼稚園教師專業素養之研究。國立臺灣師範大學,未出版,台北。
  3. 倪達仁(1987)。國民中學教師電腦素養之研究。國立師範大學教育研究所集刊,30,113-133。
  4. 陳美玉(2002)。教師個人知識管理與專業發展。台北:學富。
  5. 陳雪芳(2008)。幼稚園教師專業成長與教學效能之研究。朝陽科技大學幼兒保育系碩士論文,未出版,台中。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 周妙修(2012)。臺中市公立國民小學附設幼稚園行政效能與教學效能之研究。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所學位論文。2012。1-220。 
  2. 鄭育惠(2012)。臺中市國民小學教師經濟教育專業素養之探討。中臺科技大學文教事業經營研究所學位論文。2012。1-153。 
  3. 廖偉君(2015)。臺中市幼托整合政策實施後公立幼兒園教師工作壓力與教學效能關係之研究。逢甲大學公共政策研究所學位論文。2015。1-138。 
  4. 謝宛婷(2016)。新北市公立學校附設幼兒園兼主任職務教師的工作壓力與教學效能之研究。淡江大學教育政策與領導研究所碩士在職專班學位論文。2016。1-144。
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