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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 23 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Anderson, R.T., et al(1998). The time of change :patterns in transitions in functional status among elderly persons. Journal of Gerontology :Social Sciences,53B(1),S17-S27.
  2. Shah., et al (2003). Predictors of emergency medical services utilization by elders . Academic Emergency Medicine, 10(1), 52-58.
  3. 內政部(2000).台閩地區老人狀況調查分析 .網址:
  4. 行政院衛生署.中華民國八十九年衛生統計.台北:行政院。
  5. 李世代(1998).老年人的健康與醫療照護,長期照護雜誌,2(1),1-6。
Times Cited (4) 〈TOP〉
  1. 孫珮禎(2009)。臺灣老年人口疾病壓縮現象之研究。長榮大學醫務管理學系(所)學位論文。2009。1-161。 
  2. 楊秋萍(2010)。台灣地區失能老人使用醫療及長期照顧服務之相關因素探討。亞洲大學長期照護研究所在職專班學位論文。2010。1-115。
  3. 李愛誠(2011)。居家護理與護理之家照護品質之探討。亞洲大學長期照護研究所學位論文。2011。1-84。
  4. 林佟威(2016)。兒童風濕疾病對於病人罹癌風險及其罹癌前醫療利用之探討。義守大學醫務管理學系學位論文。2016。1-73。
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