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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 70 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Ashcraft, K. L., & Kedrowicz, A. (2002). Self-direction or social support? Nonprofit empowerment and the Tacit Employment Contract of organizational communication studies. Communication Monographs, 69(1), 88-110.
  2. Bowman, W (2004). Confidence in charitable institutions and volunteering. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(2), 247-270.
  3. and. Practice. London: SAGE Publications, Inc
  4. Grube, J. A., & Piliavinj. A. (2000). Role identity, organizational experiences, and volunteer performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1108-1119.
  5. Lora, D. A. &Morris A. O. & Kathy, S. D.(2002).Assessing volunteer motives: A comparison of an open-ended Probe and Likert Rating scale. Journal of community & Applied Social Psychology, 12(4), 243-255.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 梁逸華(2012)。長期照護服務中電話問安志工的角色。淡江大學保險學系保險經營碩士在職專班學位論文。2012。1-113。 
  2. 華安綺(2012)。古建築營運志工運作模式發展:撫臺街洋樓個案研究。臺北藝術大學藝術行政與管理研究所學位論文。2012。1-104。 
  3. 陳怡如(2013)。高齡志工持續參與居家服務經驗之探討-以財團法人華山社會福利慈善事業基金會為例。長榮大學社會工作學系(所)學位論文。2013。1-86。 
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