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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 74 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王家興譯(1991),英國品管圈的過去、現在與未來,現場與管理,19 (11),
  2. 廖素玲(2007),醫院推行品管圈之醫療品質影響成效研究─以財團法人醫院評
  3. Duffy,M.E.,(1985).Designing nursing research the qualitative-qualitative debase. Journal of Adevanced Nursing,10(2),225-232.
  4. Steel, R. P., & Lloyd, R. F. (1988), Cognitive, affective, and Behavioral Outcomes of Participation in Quality Circles:Conceptual and Empirical Findings. The Journal of Applied Behavior Science, 24 (1),1-17.
  5. Steel, R.P. & Shame, G. S. (1986), Evaluation research on quality circles:Technical and analytical implication. Human Relations, 39 (5), 449-465.
Times Cited (3) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳彥宇(2014)。中小企業導入雲端品管圈之研究。義守大學工業管理學系學位論文。2014。1-60。 
  2. 吳佳潔(2010)。醫院品質管理創新與醫院績效關係之縱貫性研究─以醫療品質獎為例。臺灣大學醫療機構管理研究所學位論文。2010。1-125。 
  3. 蘇雪蓮(2013)。品管圈推行之預期與非預期效益。臺灣大學健康政策與管理研究所學位論文。2013。1-173。
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