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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 128 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 江澤群、林國瑞(2001)台北地區高中職學生參與休閒運動
  2. 吳松齡(2003)。休閒產業經營管理。台北市,楊智文化出版。
  3. 吳忠宏、范莉雯(2003)。以九年一貫課程為架構之休閒教育模式與內容。戶外遊憩休閒,16(1)1-2頁。
  4. 李素馨 (1997)。 都市女性休閒類型和休閒阻礙。戶外休憩研究,10 (1),43-68 頁。
  5. 沈易利(1999)。台灣省民休閒運動參與動機與阻礙因素之研究。國立台灣體育學院學報第四期,台中縣。
Times Cited (1) 〈TOP〉
  1. 謝吟綺(2012)。教師情緒智力與音樂休閒活動參與之相關研究 - 以宜蘭縣國中教師為例。臺灣師範大學音樂學系在職進修碩士班學位論文。2012。1-120。
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