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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

Abstract 〈TOP〉
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Reference ( 161 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王明玲(2003)。學校志工領導行為影響志工組織發展之研究-以台北縣國小志工為例。未出版碩士論文,台灣師範大學社會教育學系,臺北市。
  2. 王國慶(2008)。Biling看布農族人唱Pasibutbut成為Bisosilin-以認真休閒理論探討。未出版碩士論文,亞洲大學休閒與遊憩管理學系,臺中縣。
  3. 王陳雪霞(2009)。深度休閒文化志工學習經驗之研究。未出版碩士論文,暨南國際大學成人與繼續教育研究所,南投縣。
  4. 沈進成、趙家民、張義立、曾慈慧(2007)。志工認真性休閒涉入、阻礙、效益與承諾影響關係之研究-以福智教育園區為例。運動與遊憩研究,2(1),19-43。
  5. 余嬪(1998)。學習社會與終身教育。學習社會,中華民國成人教育學會主編。台北:師大書院,367-388。
Times Cited (2) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王寶慧(2013)。以深度休閒理論探討男性宗教志工服務經驗。中正大學成人及繼續教育學系學位論文。2013。1-185。
  2. 洪佩暄(2016)。不同類型公益旅行者休閒效益之研究。虎尾科技大學休閒遊憩系碩士班學位論文。2016。1-116。
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