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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 142 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 王勇勝(2009)。高爾夫練習場之服務品質之探討,嘉大體育健康休閒期刊 第八卷一期 頁63-71。
  2. 吳政隆、張良漢、丁淑君(2008)。高爾夫球場服務品質、顧客滿意與行為意向之研究。休閒產業管理學刊,第一卷(第三期),1-14 頁。
  3. 呂崇銘(1985)。中國蹴鞠與擊鞠發展之研究。台北市健行文化出版事業有限公司。
  4. 李英瑋(2001)。國內綜合型運動網站使用者滿意度之研究。國立臺灣師範大學體育研究所,未出版碩士論文,台北市。
  5. 張良漢(2008)。高爾夫球場使用者知覺服務品質對忠誠度之影響-以服務價值、滿意度為中介機制,中華民國體育學會,第41卷第1期,頁69-84
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