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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 31 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院衛生署國民健康局(2008)。衛生統計。2011年6月16日取自
  2. 陳卷書(2010)。利用血清PSA及其衍生數據預測再次攝護腺切片結果之研究。未出版之碩士論文,中山醫學大學醫學研究所,台中市。
  3. 陳昶仲、吳錫金、張兆祥、陳汶吉、葉進仲、鄒頡龍等(2003)。十或十二針經直腸超音波攝護腺切片與傳統六針切片對攝護腺癌偵測的比較。中台灣醫學雜誌,8(2):102 -107。
  4. 郭漢崇(2007)。泌尿學。花蓮:靜思文化。
  5. 董宇平(2007)。前列腺腺癌的早期篩檢對醫療資源耗用影響之探討。未出版之碩士論文,高雄醫學大學醫學研究所,高雄市。
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