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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。



Data Source: Academic Citation Index (ACI)
As Taiwan's largest Citation Index, we currently have on record all Humanities, and Sociology journals that were published in Taiwan. The number of periodicals that are published on a regular basis total around 400 different types. If periodicals that were added to the collection but then halted are counted as well, the number of periodicals total over 500 types. Every year we announce the recorded periodicals' impact factor, etc. to the public, and allow scholars utilize our materials to carry out academic research for free.

Impact Factor: The statistic indicating the average number of times a journal's articles published in the past two years have been cited in the counting year.
Formula: (Number of cites in counting year to articles published in the span of two years ) ÷ (Number of articles published in the span of two years)
Example: The impact factor in 2010 (determined in 2011)
In 2009, Journal A published 15 articles, and these 15 articles were cited 20 times in 2010.
In 2008, Journal A published 16 articles, and these 16 articles were cited 30 times in 2010.
→ →2010's Impact Factor = (20+30) ÷ (15+16) = 1.61 =(20+30)÷(15+16)≒1.61


What is "Preprint"?

In order to provide readers the forefront academic information, after articles are accepted to publish in the journal, we publish them in network before they're printed. Those "on-line first articles" are called the "preprint articles". The preprint articles do not have volume No., page No., publication date, but can be identified by the DOI number. 「 」 Link to the latest version of the article.

How to cite Preprint Articles?

Please use the online publication date and the DOI number of the preprint article to cite the literature.

Cited example (may vary with different formats you cited):

Author name. Article name. Journal name. YYYY/MM/DD online publish in advance.

doi:DOI Number

Abstract 〈TOP〉
Parallel Abstract 〈TOP〉
Reference ( 62 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. Agronick, G. S.,Duncan, L. E.(1998).Personality and Social Change: Individual Differences, Life Span, and Importance Attributed to the Women`s Movement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,74(6),1545-1555.
  2. Atkin, C. K.(1978).Observations of Parents-Child Interactions in Supermarket Decision-Making.Journal of Marketing,42(1),42-45.
  3. Belch, G. E.,Belch, M. A.,Ceresino, G.(1985).Parental and Teenage Child Influences in Family Decision Making.Journal of Business Research,13(2),163-176.
  4. Blazey, M. A.(1987).The Differences between Participants and Non-participants in a Senior Travel Program.Journal of Leisure Research,26(1),7-12.
  5. Blazey, M. A.(1992).Travel and Retirement Status.Annals of Tourism Research,19(4),771-783.
Times Cited ( 5 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 陳郡昀(2011)。高齡者人格特質與休閒型態關係之研究。中興大學生物產業管理研究所學位論文。2011。1-62。 
  2. 李佳如(2007)。應用Rasch模式探討自助旅行者之海外旅遊阻礙感認。高雄餐旅學院旅遊管理研究所學位論文。2007。1-111。 
  3. 蕭吉男(2006)。台灣地區中老年人國內外旅遊參與狀況之探討。政治大學財政研究所學位論文。2006。1-56。
  4. 張至勇(2015)。台灣銀髮族群休閒旅遊之研究-以鋼友旅行社為例。中山大學高階經營碩士班學位論文。2015。1-64。
  5. 楊婷雁(2017)。高雄市銀髮族人格特質、旅遊動機、旅遊涉入與旅遊行為之研究。朝陽科技大學休閒事業管理系學位論文。2017。1-79。
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