受壓抑者的反論述:E. M. 佛斯特的《墨利斯的情人》之研究

Translated Titles

The Counter-Discourse of the Repressed: On E. M. Forster’s Maurice



Key Words

墨利斯的情人 ; 佛斯特 ; 論述 ; 賤斥 ; 同性戀 ; Maurice ; E. M. Forster ; discourse ; abjection ; the homosexual



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Chinese Abstract

在《墨利斯的情人》中,佛斯特突顯出在晚期維多利亞時代以及早期英國現代社會中,同性戀作為一個被壓迫的論述的角色。相反地,異性戀則是由意識形態所安排的主宰論述。因此,社會竭力逐出持異議者的同性慾望,以便肯定異性戀人的位置。然而,這樣的驅逐動作從來沒有成功。從茱利亞•克莉絲蒂娃(J. Kristeva)的觀點來看,這個所謂的合法社會總是下意識的需要一個賤斥體來肯定自己的所在位置。依此類推,同性戀者於是體悟到同性戀是一種賤斥的運作。也就是在這樣的情況之下,佛斯特訴諸於小說《墨利斯的情人》來突顯同性戀者所屬的兩難地位,並以它作為媒介來陳述他長久以來被壓抑的同性情慾。小說在佛斯特死後出版,並且成為當代社會的一種干擾素。簡言之,《墨利斯的情人》之所以成為賤斥體是歸結於它所描述的是一個被禁令的題材;然而身為佛斯特替身的主角墨利斯,最終在小說中找到他的屬於真愛。雖然這種虛構的和平只可能在藝術作品中出現,《墨利斯的情人》卻成為一個時代的提醒者:一個對同性戀懼怕而使得佛斯特、墨利斯,以及其他許多人遭受無法以言語表達的、不能公開的「不合法」情慾的時代。此外,傅科的權利與論述觀點也包含在小說裡頭。小說中,佛斯特呈現同性戀為一種禁忌卻又同時捍衛著它。因此,在這篇論文中,我借用克莉絲蒂娃的賤斥的概念以及傅科的權利與論述觀點來闡明維多利亞社會對於「同性懼怕」是如何將之內化與自然化,藉此主張佛斯特及墨利斯透過被賤斥的力量呈現出他們一貫且不斷的努力來捍衛自己。

English Abstract

In Maurice, E. M. Forster highlights homosexuality as an oppressed discourse in the context of the late Victorian and early modern English society. In contrast, heterosexuality was the prevalent and dominant discourse that ideologically positioned people in place. The society, therefore, endeavored to drive out the dissenter’s same-sex desire so as to constantly affirm the heterosexual’s position. However, the dispelling has never been successful in that the legitimate scoiety always unconsciously needs an abject, to borrow Julia Kristeva’s term, to remind itself of the position it is at. Analogically, homosexuality was the abjection in the awareness of the homosexual. And it is in this situation that Forster appealed to the writing of Maurice to both pinpoint the liminal position at which the homosexual occupied and use this novel as an intermediary to articulate his long-term repressed homoeroticism. The novel became an irritant to the contemporary society as it was published posthumously. In short, Maurice was an abject due to the forbidden topic, in which, Maurice, the mouthpiece of Forster, has finally found his psoition with his lover. Although this imaginary peacefulness was possible in the work of art, Maurice has remained Forster’s reminder of a time when homophobia had made him and the protagonist and many others suffer unspeakably from their private “illegitimate” desire. Apparently, Foucault’s idea of power is involved. In Maurice, Forster approaches homosexuality as a taboo, and defends it at the same time. Therefore, in this thesis, I will use Julia Kristeva’s well-known idea of abjection and Michael Foucault’s notion of power and discourse to shed light on the Victorian society’s internalization and naturalization of expelling the homosexual, and to argue that in Maurice, the protagonist Maurice, and Forster have made their abjection power visibly acceptable through invariable efforts.

Topic Category 人文學 > 外國文學
文學院 > 外國語文學系所
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