The Impacts of Agricultural Subsidies on Big Tenant Farmers' Operation Diversification and Performance
Tobit Model ； 經營績效 ； 多角化 ； 大專業農 ； 農業補貼 ； Tobit Model ； Operation Performance ； Diversification ； Big Tenant ； Agricultural Subsidy
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農政單位為擴大經營規模，調整農業結構及紓解老農、小農及農業競爭力不足等問題，自2009年推動「小地主大專業農」政策，並配合調整耕作制度及活化農地計畫，提供農民轉(契)作及休耕補貼，鼓勵種植進口替代及具外銷潛力作物，冀改變產業結構，以落實「擴大經營規模、調整農業結構」政策目標。 此外為維護農民權益，多年來亦推行多項農業補助如稻穀保價收購、農機/設施補助、休耕、轉(契)作補貼、農業油電補貼等。然過往相關研究較少探討農業補貼對多角化及經營績效的影響，有鑑於此，本研究以2015年大專業農經營概況調查樣本資料，探討農業補貼對大專業農多角化及經營績效的影響。 實證結果顯示，大專業農多角化程度為29.9%，北、中及南區均較東區多角化程度高，稻作、特作、果品及加工農家多角化程度較農事作業農家低，農產品加工及農事作業、農用設施、轉(契)作及休耕補貼對多角化為正向顯著的影響；大專業農平均農業所得率為31.8%，教育程度大專以上者較國小者經營績效高、北區較東區經營績效低、中區較東區經營績效高、稻作農家較農事作業農家經營績效低、其餘類型農家經營績效均較農事作業農家高。種植面積、多角化、初級農產品收入、加工農產品收入、農機及轉(契)作補貼對經營績效為正向的影響，農地租金、複種指數、臨時人員對經營績效為負向的影響。此研究結果可作為農政單位調整大專業農政策之參據。
In the light of expanding the scale of agricultural operation as well as addressing the structural issues like rural population aging, overly fragmented cultivation, and lack of competitiveness, Taiwan’s agricultural administrator implemented “Small Landlord and Big Tennant” program in 2009. Under the policy goal of “Scale Enlargement and Structural Adjustment”, in conjunction with cultivation adjustment, farmland revitalization, subsidy on farming transition (contractual farming) and set-aside, and encouragement of plantation of import substitute crops and crops with strong export potentials, this program aims at bringing about a structural change to the industry. For years, in safeguarding the interests of farmers, numerous subsidy programs have been introduced, including price guarantee paddy procurement, agricultural machinery/facility subsidies, set-aside subsidy, farming transition (contractual farming) subsidy, and subsidy on agricultural uses of electricity and fuel. However, the effects of agricultural subsidies and diversified operation on operation performance have rarely been touched on by studies in this field. In consideration of that, this study will analyze the survey data on 2015 Big Tenant operation to explore how agricultural subsidies can affect diversification and operation performance of Big Tenants participants. According to the data, the average diversification rate of policy guided Big Tenants was 29.9 percent. Among them, those in north, central, and south regions had a greater degree of diversification than those in east region. Farmers who cultivated paddy, special crops, and fruits and those who engaged in processing diversified less in their operation than those providing agricultural services. Engaging in agricultural processing, agricultural services, and agricultural machinery businesses and receiving transition and set-aside subsidies had significant positive effects on diversification. For Big Tenants, the agricultural income accounted for 31.8 percent of their total earning in average. In terms of operation performance, the data further indicates that those participants with college degree or above achieved better operation performance than that of those with only elementary education; compared against Big Tenants in east region, Big Tenants in north region fared worse and those in central region did better; paddy growing households had lower operation performance than those providing agricultural services, but households engaging in all other agricultural activities achieved better operation performance than agricultural service providers did. The planting area, diversification, income percentage from primary agricultural products and agricultural processed products, and the amount of subsidy received for agricultural machinery and farming transition (contractual farming) had positive effects on operation performance; on the other hand, rents paid for farmland, cropping index, number of part-time employees hired are shown to have negative effects on operation performance. In conclusion, these findings may serve as a basis for agricultural administrators to make an adjustment to the Big Tenant policy.
社會科學 > 經濟學