Title

知覺環境與高齡居民身體活動行為暨生活品質關聯模式研究

Translated Titles

The Study of Perceived Environment and Its Related to Senior Citizen’s Physical Activity and Quality of Life

Authors

李素華

Key Words

生活品質 ; 高齡居民 ; 身體活動行為 ; 計畫行為理論 ; 知覺環境 ; theory of planned behavior ; quality of life ; physical activity ; senior citizen ; perceived environment

PublicationName

中山大學公共事務管理研究所學位論文

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

2014年

Academic Degree Category

博士

Advisor

吳濟華

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

規律的身體活動,能夠促進高齡居民心理健康與認知功能,及降低慢性疾病的發生,且增進生活品質。Sallis等人(2006)提出之生態模型,強調環境與政策的介入,對個人健康行為最具有影響力。研究目的:建構知覺環境與高齡居民身體活動行為暨生活品質理論模型;驗證本研究所建構之理論模式的解釋能力,利用模型來預測及解釋環境與高齡居民身體活動行為與生活品質之關係;提出合適高齡居民環境政策建議,促進高齡居民身體活動行為,促進高齡居民健康。研究方法:高雄市324位65歲以上高齡居民為研究對象,以問卷調查收集資料,資料分析採偏最小平方法進行模式驗證。研究結果:環境可及性對高齡居民身體活動行為態度、主觀規範及知覺行為控制達顯著性;環境美學及環境安全對主觀規範達顯著性;態度及知覺行為控制預測行為意向達顯著性;行為意向對生活品質達顯著性。結論:本研究建構知覺環境與高齡居民身體活動行為暨生活品質理論模型具有預測力及解釋力。建議:對高齡居民身體活動行為與生活品質的環境政策,第一優先為提供環境可及性,其次為強化知覺行為控制、態度及行為意向,以促進高齡居民身體活動與生活品質。

English Abstract

Regularity of physical activity can promote mental health and senior citizens cognitive function, reduce the incidence of chronic diseases, and also enhance quality of life. Sallis et al (2006) ecological model proposed, emphasizing environmental and policy intervention are the most influential ways on individual health behaviors. Research purpose: 1st, to construct perceived environment and physical activity behaviors of elderly residents living-cum-quality theoretical model; 2nd, verify the ability of the theoretical model to explain the construction of the institute; 3rd, using the model to predict and explain the relationship between the environment and physical activity behaviors of senior citizens and quality of life; 4th, proposed suitable for senior citizens in environmental policy recommendations to promote physical activity behavior of senior citizens, and promote the health of senior citizens. Research methods: 324 Kaohsiung residents over the age of 65 for the study, a questionnaire for collecting data. About data analysis, partial least squares method of mining schema validation. Research results: there are 4 main results of the research, 1st, environmental accessibility for elderly residents in physical activity behavior and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control has its significance; 2nd, environmental aesthetics and environmental safety norms have significant subjective; 3rd, attitudes and perceived behavioral control predict behavioral intention was significant. And the last one, behavioral intention was significant quality of life. In conclusion: This study constructs perceived environment and physical activity behaviors of elderly residents living-cum-quality theoretical model has predictive power and explanatory power. Recommendation: there are 2 main policies to promote physical activity and improve quality of life of senior citizens, the 1st is to provide environmental accessibility, followed by enhanced perceived behavioral control, attitude and behavioral intention.

Topic Category 管理學院 > 公共事務管理研究所
社會科學 > 政治學
Reference
  1. 王乃玉(2008)‧老人智慧樂活環境(未出版之碩士論文)‧台南:國立成功大學。
    連結:
  2. 李月萍、陳清惠(2000)‧社區老人休閒活動研究現況,護理雜誌57(1),82-87‧
    連結:
  3. 姚開屏(2002)‧台灣版世界衛生組織生活品質問卷之發展與應用,台灣醫學6(3),193-200。
    連結:
  4. 詹文祥、邱文信(2011) .老化現象對步態之影響.中華體育季刊,25(4).677-685。
    連結:
  5. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
    連結:
  6. Ajzen, I. (2002b). Perceived behavioural control, self efficacy, locus of control and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665-683.
    連結:
  7. Ajzen, I. (2006). Behavioral interventions based on the theory of planned behavior. Retrieved from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.intervention.pdf.
    連結:
  8. Ajzen, I.,& Madden, T. J. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453-474.
    連結:
  9. Aoyagi, Y., & Shephard, R. J. (2013). Sex differences in relationships between habitual physical activity and health in the elderly: practical implications for epidemiologists based on pedometer/accelerometer data from the Nakanojo Study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(2), 327-338.
    連結:
  10. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M.(2001). EYcacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471-499.
    連結:
  11. Baert, V., Gorus, E., Mets, T., Geerts, C., & Bautmans, I. (2011). Motivators and barriers for physical activity in the oldest old: a systematic review. Ageing Research Reviews, 10(4), 464-474.
    連結:
  12. Ball, K., Bauman, A., Leslie, E., & Owen, N. (2001). Perceived environmental aesthetics and convenience and company are associated with walking for exercise among Australian adults. Preventive medicine, 33(5), 434-440.
    連結:
  13. Bauman, A. E.,& Bull, F. C. (2007). Environmental correlates of physical activity and walking in adults and children: a review of reviews. London: National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence.
    連結:
  14. Berke, E. M., Koepsell, T. D., Moudon, A.V., Hoskins, R. E., & Larson, E. B. (2007). Association of the Built Environment With Physical Activity and Obesity in Older Persons. American Public Health Association, 97(3),486-492.
    連結:
  15. Berke, E.M., Gottlieb, L.M., Moudon, A.V.,& Larson, E.B.,(2007). Protective Association Between Neighborhood Walkability and Depression in Older Men. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(4), 526–533.
    連結:
  16. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.
    連結:
  17. Caperchione, C., & Mummery, K. (2007). Psychosocial mediators of group cohesion on physical activity intention of older adults. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 12(1), 81-93.
    連結:
  18. Carlson, J. A., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Saelens, B.E., Frank, L. D., Kerr, j., Cain, K. L., & King, A. C.(2012). Interactions between Psychosocial and Built Environment Factors in Explaining Older Adults’ Physical Activity. Preventive Medicine, 54(1), 68-73.
    連結:
  19. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309-319.
    連結:
  20. Conn, V. S., Tripp-Reimer, T., & Maas, M. L. (2003). Older women and exercise: theory of planned behavior beliefs. Public Health Nursing, 20(2), 153-163.
    連結:
  21. Cronbach, L.J., (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests, Psychometrika, 16(3), 297–334.
    連結:
  22. de Bruijn, G. J., Kremers, S. P., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., de Vries, H., van Mechelen, W., & Brug, J. (2006). Modeling individual and physical environmental factors with adolescent physical activity. American journal of preventive medicine, 30(6), 507-512.
    連結:
  23. DeGuzman, P.B., & Kulbok, P.A. (2012). Changing health outcomes of vulnerable populations through nursing''s influence on neighborhood built environment: A framework for nursing research. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 44(4), 34-348.
    連結:
  24. Dishman, R. K. (1991). Increasing and maintaining exercise and physical activity. Behaviour Therapy, 22, 345–378.
    連結:
  25. Efron, B.(1979). Bootstrap methods: Another look at the jackknife. Annals of Statistics, 7(1), 1–26.
    連結:
  26. Fishbein, M. (2000). The role of theory in HIV prevention. AIDS Care, 12(3), 273-278.
    連結:
  27. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Mass: Addison-Wesley.
    連結:
  28. Fornell, C. & Bookstein, F. L. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 440-452.
    連結:
  29. Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.
    連結:
  30. Gefen, D. & Straub, D. W. (1997). Gender differences in the perception and use of e-mail: An extension to the technology acceptance model. MIS Quarterly, 21(4), 389-400.
    連結:
  31. Geisser, S. (1975). The redictive sample reuse method with applications. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 70, 320–328.
    連結:
  32. Gerbing, D. W. & Anderson, J. C. (1988). An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment, Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2), 186-192.
    連結:
  33. Gretebeck, K. A., Black, D. R., Blue, C. L., Glickman, L. T., Huston, S. A., & Gretebeck, R. J. (2007). Physical activity and function in older adults: theory of planned behavior. American Journal of Health Behavior, 31(2), 203-214.
    連結:
  34. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2002). A Meta-Analytic Review of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior in Physical Activity: Predictive Validity and the Contribution of Additional Variables. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 3-32.
    連結:
  35. Hardeman, W., Michie. S., Kinmonth, A. L., Sutton, S.,& ProActive project team. (2011). Do increases in physical activity encourage positive beliefs about further change in the ProActive cohort? Psychology and Health, 26(7), 899-914.
    連結:
  36. Hoehner, C.M., Brennan Ramirez, L. K., Elliott, M.B., Handy, S.L., & Brownson, R. C. (2005). Perceived and Objective Environmental Measures and Physical Activity Among Urban Adults. American journal of preventive medicine,28(2S2),105–116.
    連結:
  37. Humpel, N., Owen, N., & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults'' participation in physical activity: a review. American journal of preventive medicine, 22(3), 188-199.
    連結:
  38. Humpel, N., Owen, N., Iverson, D., Leslie, E., & Bauman, A. (2004). Perceived environment attributes, residential location, and walking for particular purposes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 26(2), 119-125.
    連結:
  39. Hwang, H. F., Lian,W. M., Chiu,Y. N., & Lin,M. R. (2003). Suitability of the WHOQOL-BREF for community-dwelling older people in Taiwan. Age and Ageing 32(6), 593–600.
    連結:
  40. Janz, N., & Becker, M. H. (1984). The Health Belief Model: a decade later.. Health Education Quarterly, 11(1), 1-47.
    連結:
  41. Kerr, J., Rosenberg, D.,& Frank, L.(2012). The Role of the Built Environment in Healthy Aging: Community Design,Physical Activity, and Health among Older Adults. Journal of Planning Literature 27(1), 43-60.
    連結:
  42. Kosma, M., Ellis, R., Cardinal, B. J., Bauer, J. J., & McCubbin, J. A. (2007). The mediating role of intention and stages of change in physical activity among adults with physical disabilities: an integrative framework. Journal of sport & exercise psychology, 29(1), 21-38.
    連結:
  43. Lederer, A.L.& Sethi, V. (1992). Root causes of strategic information systems planning implementation problems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 9(1), 25–45.
    連結:
  44. Lee, H. S., & Shepley, M. M. (2012). Perceived neighborhood environments and leisure-time walking among korean adults: an application of the theory of planned behavior. HERD, 5(2), 99-110.
    連結:
  45. Lewis, B.R., Snyder, C.A. & Rainer Jr, R.K.(1995). An empirical assessment of the information resource management construct. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(1), 199–223.
    連結:
  46. Lotfi, S. & Koohsari, M. (2011). Neighborhood Walkability in a City within a Developing Country. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 137(4), 402–408.
    連結:
  47. Marcoulides, G. A., Chin, W. W., & Saunders, C. (2009). A Critical Look at Partial Least Squares Modeling, MIS Quarterly, 33(1), 171-175.
    連結:
  48. McEachan, R. R. C., Conner, M., Taylor, N. J., & Lawton, R. J. (2011). Prospective prediction of health-related behaviours with the Theory of Planned Behaviour: a meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5(2), 97-144.
    連結:
  49. McMurdo, M. E., Argo, I., Crombie, I. K., Feng, Z., Sniehotta, F. F., Vadiveloo, T., … & Donnan, P. T. (2012). Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s. PLoS One, 7(2), e31878.
    連結:
  50. Morrisona, D.M., Lohra, M.J., Beadnella, B. A. Gillmoreb, ,M.R., Lewisa, S.,& Gilchrista, L.(2010). Young mothers’ decisions to use marijuana: A test of an expanded theory of planned behavior. Psychology and Health, 25(5), 569–587.
    連結:
  51. Nathan, A., Pereira, G., Foster, S., Hooper, P., Saarloos, D., Giles-Corti, B. (2012). Access to commercial destinations within the neighbourhood and walking among Australian older adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(133), 1-8.
    連結:
  52. O''Callaghan, F. V., Chant, D. C., Callan, V. J., & Baglioni, A. (1997). Models of alcohol use by young adults: An examination of various attitude- behavior theories. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 502-507.
    連結:
  53. Pikora, T., Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F., Jamrozik, K., & Donovan, R. (2003). Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling. Social Science & Medicine, 56(8), 1693-1703.
    連結:
  54. Rantakokko, M., Iwarsson, S., Kauppinen, M., Leinonen, R., Heikkinen, E., & Rantanen, T. (2010). Quality of life and barriers in the urban outdoor environment in old age. [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov''t]. The American Geriatrics Society, 58(11), 2154-2159.
    連結:
  55. Rhodes, R. E., Brown, S.G., & McIntyre, C.A. (2006). Integrating the Perceived Neighborhood Environment and the Theory of Planned Behavior When Predicting Walking in a Canadian Adult Sample. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21(2), 110-118.
    連結:
  56. Rhodes, R. E., Courneya, K. S., Blanchard, C. M., & Plotnikoff, R. C. (2007). Prediction of leisure-time walking: an integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and physical Activity, 4(51). 1-11.
    連結:
  57. Rosenstock, I. M. (1966). Why people use health sevices. Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 44(supplement). 94-127.
    連結:
  58. Rosso, A. L., Auchincloss, A. H., & Michael, Y. L. (2011). The Urban Built Environment and Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Review. Journal of Aging Research ,1-10.
    連結:
  59. Sallis, J.F., Cervero, R.B., Ascher, W., Henderson, K.A., Kraft, M.K.,& Kerr, J. (2006). An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annual review of public health, 27, 297-322.
    連結:
  60. Sarkar, C., Gallacher, J., & Webster, C. (2013). Built environment configuration and change in body mass index: the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS). Health Place, 19, 33-44.
    連結:
  61. Schulz, A., & Northridge, M.E. (2004). Social determinants of health: implications for environmental health promotion. Health Education & Behaviour, 31(4), 455-471.
    連結:
  62. Sigmundová , D. Ansa,W.E.,& Sigmund, E.(2011). Neighbourhood Environment Correlates of Physical Activity: A Study of Eight Czech Regional Towns. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8(2), 341-357.
    連結:
  63. Sjögren, K., & Stjernberg, L. (2010). A gender perspective on factors that influence outdoor recreational physical activity among the elderly. BMC Geriatrics, 10(34), 1-9.
    連結:
  64. Straub, D.W.(1989). Validating instruments in MIS research. MIS Quarterly, 13(2), 147–169.
    連結:
  65. Tenenhaus, M. (2008). Component-based structural equation modelling. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 19, 871-886.
    連結:
  66. The WHOQOL Group (1998). Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551-558.
    連結:
  67. Tsunoda, K., Tsuji, T., Kitano, N., Mitsuishi, Y., Yoon, J. Y., Yoon, J., & Okura, T. (2012). Associations of physical activity with neighborhood environments and transportation modes in older Japanese adults. Preventive Medicine, 55(2), 113-118.
    連結:
  68. Van Cauwenberg, J., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., De Meester, F., Van Dyck, D., Salmon, J., Clarys, P., & Deforche, B. (2011). Relationship between the physical environment and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review. Health & Place, 17 (2), 458–469.
    連結:
  69. Werts, C.E., Linn, R.L. & Jöreskog, K.G.(1974). Intraclass reliability estimates: Testing structural assumptions, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 34, 25–33.
    連結:
  70. Williams, D. M., Anderson, E. S., & Winett, R. A. (2005). A review of the outcome expectancy construct in physical activity research. Annals of behavioral medicine, 29(1), 70-79.
    連結:
  71. Wilson, D. M., & Palha, P. (2007). A Systematic Review of Published Research Articles on Health Promotion at Retirement. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 39(4), 330–337.
    連結:
  72. 參考文獻
  73. 內政部統計處(2010).民國98年老人狀況調查.取自http://sowf.moi.gov.tw/stat/Survey/98old.doc
  74. 王華娟(2011)‧社區老人身心機能活化運動參與程度 與健康狀況研究(未出版之碩士論文)‧屏東:美和科技大學健康照護研究所。
  75. 牟鍾福、陳建松(2010)‧我國老人運動政策之研究報告書‧行政院體育委員會
  76. 行政院主計處(2013,9月).社會指標統計年報‧取自http://ebook.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Data/331311353471.pdf。
  77. 行政院經濟建設委員會(2009,5月)‧我國長期照護服務需求評估.取自http://www.cepd.gov.tw/dn.aspx?uid=8238。
  78. 行政院經濟建設委員會(2012,8月)‧「2012年至2060年臺灣人口推估」報告‧取自http://www.cepd.gov.tw/dn.aspx?uid=11723。
  79. 行政院衛生署(2009).2020建康國民白皮書.臺北市:行政院衛生署、財團法人國家衛生研究院。
  80. 行政院體育委員會(2008)‧中華民國97年運動城市排行榜調查報告.取自http://www.sac.gov.tw/publication/publication.aspx?type=6&ap=0&wmid=165。
  81. 呂寶靜(2007)‧人口政策白皮書及實施計畫之研究-子計畫四「我國人口政策白皮書之規劃與研究」‧內政部委託研究報告。
  82. 張彩秀、黃乾全(2002).中老年健康促進生活型態與自覺健康狀態之關係.衛生教育學報,17,15-30。
  83. 蔡英美、王俊明(2013)‧銀髮族休閒活動參與動機、運動參與程度及幸福感的研究‧Journal of Nan Kai,10(1),23-34。
  84. 蔡淑瑩(2012)‧舊社區實現「 在地老化」之社區公共設施改造行動研究.人文與社會科學簡報,13(2),131-140。
  85. 蕭文龍(2014)‧統計分析入門與應用:SPSS中文版+PLS-SEM(SmartPLS)‧台北:碁峰。
  86. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11- 39). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.
  87. Ajzen, I. (2002a). Constructing a theory of planned behavior questionnaire [on line]. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf
  88. Ajzen, I.,& Manstead, A. S. R.(2007). Changing health-related behaviors: An approach based on the theory of planned behavior. In K. van den Bos, M. Hewstone, J. deWit, H. Schut & M. Stroebe (Eds.), The Scope of Social Psychology: Theory and Applications (pp. 43-63). New York: Psychology Press.
  89. Cankovic, S., Nikolic, E. A.,Susnjevic, S., Cankovic, D., Radic, I., & Harhaji. S. (2012). Enviroment and quality of life od older people. HealthMed. 6(5), 1815-1820.
  90. Carter-Parker, K., Edwards, K. A., & McCleary-Jones, V.(2012). Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not. The Association of Black Nursing Faculty in Higher Education Journal, 23(3), 51-58.
  91. Chin, W.W.(1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling, In Modern Methods for Business Research, Marcoulides, G.A. (ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, I295–1336.
  92. Chodzko-Zajko, W. J., Proctor, D. N., Fiatarone Singh, M. A., Minson, C. T., Nigg, C. R., Salem, G. J., Skinner, J. S.(2009). Exercise and Physical Activity for Older Adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise , 41(7),1510-1530.
  93. Clark, R. A., Coffee, N.(2011). Why measuring accessibilityis important for public health: a review from the Cardiac ARIA project. Public Health Bulletin of South Australia, 8(1), 3-8.
  94. Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R. (1993). An Introduction to the Bootstrap, New York: Chapman Hall.
  95. Elsawy, B., & Higgins, K. E. (2010). Physical activity guidelines for older adults. American Family Physician, 81(1), 55-59.
  96. Fornell, C. & Cha, J. (1994). Partial least squares. In Advanced Methods of Marketing Research, Bagozzi, R.P. (ed.), Blackwell, Cambridge, I52–178.
  97. Freeze, R. D. & Raschke, R. L.(2002). An assessment of formative and reflective constructs in is research, ECIS 2007 Proceedings, 171, 1481-1492.
  98. Gefen, D., Straub, D. W. & Boudreau, M‐C. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4 (7): 1‐79.
  99. Gómez, L. F., Parra, D. C., Buchner, D., Brownson, R. C., Sarmiento, O.L., Pinzón, J.D., Ardila, M., …& Lobelo, F. (2010). Built environment attributes and walking patterns among the elderly population in Bogotá. American journal of preventive medicine, 38(6), 592-599.
  100. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–151.
  101. Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M.& Sinkovics, R.R.(2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–320.
  102. Hwnseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international maketing, Advances in International Marking, 20, 277-320.
  103. Moschny, A., Platen, P., Klaassen-Mielke, R., Trampisch, U.,& Hinrichs, T.((2011). Barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany: a cross-sectional study. The international journal of behavior nutrition and physical activity, 8(121). 1-10.
  104. Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory, New York: McGraw-Hill.
  105. Owen, N., Humpel, N., Leslie, E., Bauman, A., & Sallis, J. F. (2004). Understanding environmental influences on walking; Review and research agenda. American journal of preventive medicine, 27(1), 67-76
  106. Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M. & Straub, D. W. (2012). A Critical Look at the Use of PLS-SEM in MIS Quarterly. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), iii-xiv.
  107. Sallis, J. F., Bauman, A., Pratt, M. (1998). Environmental and Policy Interventions to Promote Physical Activity. American Journal of Medicine, 15(4). 379-397.
  108. Sallis, J. F., Saelens, B.E., Frank, L.D., Conway, T.L., Slymen, D. J., Cain, K. L., Chapman, J.E.,& Kerr, J. (2009). Neighborhood Built Environment and Income: Examining Multiple Health Outcomes. Social science & medicine, 68(7), 1285-1293.
  109. Sawchuk, C. N., Russo, J. E., Bogart, A., Charles, S., Goldberg, J., Forquera, R., Roy-Byrne, P.,& Buchwald, D. (2011). Barriers and facilitators to walking and physical activity among American Indian elders. Preventing chronic disease, 8(3), A63.
  110. Stone, M. (1974). Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 36(2), 111–133.
  111. Urbach, N. & Ahlemann, F. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling in Information Systems Research Using Partial Least Squares. Journal of information Technology Theory and Application.11(2), 5-44.
  112. World Health Organization.(2002). Active ageing: a policy framework. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_NPH_02.8.pdf.